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al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków , 30-059, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland


Physics - lectures: 1. *Introduction:* the nature of physics, scientific methods-models, scientific measurements, standards and units, scalars and vectors. *2.Mechanics:* *Kinematics:* kinematics of straight –line motion: displacement, time, average and instantaneous velocity, average and instantaneous acceleration, motion in two and three dimensions, uniform circular motion. *Dynamics:* Newton’s Laws of Motion: Newton’s First Law: inertia, inertial frames of reference; Newton’s Second Law Motion: force and acceleration, superposition of forces, mass and weight; Newton’s Third Law: forces and interactions, actions and reactions - defining of system, applying Newton’s Laws, dynamics of circular motion, fundamental forces of nature. *3. Momentum and energy*: impulse, collisions, center of mass, external forces and the center of mass - motion, conservation of momentum, work, power, mechanical energy: kinetic and potential, work-energy theorem, work and energy with varying forces, energy conservation, gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, conservative and nonconservative forces: friction, the Law of Conservation of Energy, force and potential energy. *4.Rotation of rigid bodies*: angular velocity and acceleration, relating linear and angular kinematics, energy in rotational motion: rotational inertia and moment of inertia, moment of Inertia calculations, center of mass and center of gravity, parallel-axis theorem, torque and angular acceleration of the rigid body, work and power in rotational motion, combined translation and rotation: rolling without slipping and rolling friction, angular momentum of the rigid body, conservation of angular momentum, gyroscopes and precession. *5.Gravitation:* Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation, gravitational potential energy,gravitational fields, projectile and satellite motion( escape speed), weight and weightlessness, Kepler’s Laws and the motion of planets, black holes and event horizon. *6. Vibrations:* simple harmonic motion(SHM)-equation of SHM, circular motion and SHM, displacement, amplitude, velocity, acceleration, period, frequency, angular frequency, energy in SHM, applications of SHM- simple and physical pendulum, damped oscillations, forced oscillations and resonance. *7. Mechanical waves:* types of waves, mathematical description of waves-wave function, particle velocity and acceleration in sinusoidal wave, wave speed and energy in wave motion, wave interference and the principle of superposition, beats, Doppler effect, reflection and standing waves, normal modes, sound and hearing –sound intensity, decibel scale, music. *8.Thermodynamics:* temperature and heat, laws of thermodynamics: the Zeroth Law (thermometers, Kelvin scale, thermal expansion, calorimetry and phases changes, mechanisms of heat transfer),the First Law (the thermodynamic system, work and heat, work done during volume changes,paths between thermodynamic states, internal energy, kinds of thermodynamic processes, cyclic processes, ideal gas, heat capacities of ideal gas),the Second Law (directions of thermodynamic processes and disorder, heat engines and efficiency, the Second Law statement, entropy, entropy and disorder, reversibility, microscopic interpretation of entropy-microscopic states-calculation of entropy),the Third Law (absolute zero). *8.Electrostatics:*electric charge, electric field vector, principle of conservation of charge, electric charge and structure of matter (atom, the elements, periodic table, isotopes, molecules, antimatter, dark matter), charging by induction, Coulomb’s Law and superposition principle, electric field of point charge and dipole, calculating of electric fields, electric flux and Gauss’s Law, applications of Gauss’s Law, electric potential energy and electric potential, calculating electric potential, electron volts, equipotential surfaces and field lines, potential gradient and electric field, capacitance, capacitor, energy storage in capacitors and electric-field energy, dielectrics, induced charge and polarization, capacitors in parallel and in series, Gauss’s Law in dielectrics. *9.Electric current and electromotive force*: current, direction of current flow and current density, resistivity and resistance, electromotive force (internal resistance, terminal voltage),voltage sources, direct -current circuits and symbols for circuit diagrams, Ohm’s Law, resistors in series and in parallel, Kirchoff’s Law’s and signs convention, energy and power in electric circuits, ammeters and voltmeters, R-C circuits, conductors and semiconductors. *10. Magnetism and magnetic fields*: permanent magnets, magnetic forces on moving charges and current carrying conductor, motion of charged particles in magnetic field-applications, magnetic field lines and magnetic flux, Gauss’s Law for magnetism, force and torque on current loop - magnetic dipole, loops and coils, Hall effect, sources of magnetic field (moving charge, magnetic field of a current element), the Biot-Savart Law, force between parallel conductors-defining the ampere, magnetic field on the axis of a coil, Amper’s Law, magnetic materials (paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferromagnetism). *11. Electromagnetic induction:* Faraday’s Law, direction of induced electromotive force(EMF), generators and alternating current, Lenz’s Law and response to flux changes, motional EMF, induced electric fields, displacement current and Maxwell equations for electromagnetism, Lorentz’s force, inductance, mutual inductance, self-inductance and inductors, magnetic- field energy and energy storage in inductors, R-L, L-C and RLC circuits, impedance and phase angle, alternating current circuits, transformers. *12. Electromagnetic waves:* generating electromagnetic radiation, key properties of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum, speed of light, plane electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic energy flow-intensity, standing waves. *13.Light- nature and propagation:* wave front and rays, principle of last time, law’s of reflection and refraction, total internal reflection, dispersion, polarization, Huygen’s Principle, geometric optics - mirrors, lens images, eye and defects of vision, microscopes and telescopes, wave optics –interference(Michelson interferometer, coherence) and diffraction (single slit and two slits diffraction, diffraction grating, spectrographs, circular apertures, diffraction and image formation, X-ray diffraction). *14. Basics of Special and General Theory of Relativity (STR and GTR):* STR: Michelson-Morley experiment, postulates of STR, simultaneity, spacetime, time dilatation, twin paradox, addition of velocities, length contraction, relativistic- momentum, mass, energy. GTR: Reference frames and principle of equivalence, gravity and space and time: bending of light by gravity, gravitational red shift, gravitational waves. *15. Atoms, electrons and photons:* emission and absorption of light, photoelectric effect and Einstein’s photon explanation, atomic line spectra and energy levels, the Bohr model, Compton scattering, continuous spectra-Plank radiation law, wave-particle duality. *16.The wave nature of particles and Quantum Mechanics:* de Broglie waves, electron diffraction, electron microscope, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, wave function and Schrődinger equation, Born’s interpretation of wave function, Schrődinger equation- quantization, energy levels, stationary states, bound states, tunneling, harmonic oscillator, structure of hydrogen atom and electron probability distribution, electron spin, Pauli’s principle, selection rules, Zeeman effect, X-ray spectra, periodic table. *17.Molecules and condensed matter:* types of molecular bonds, molecular spectra- (absorption, emission, Jablonski diagram), structure of solids-crystals, energy bands-insulators, semiconductors and conductors, Fermi energy. *18. Nuclear physics:* atomic nuclei properties, nuclides and isotopes, nuclear spins and nucear magnetic resonance, nuclear forces and liquid-drop and the shell models, nuclear stability and radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma decays, activities and decay rates, biological effects of radiation, radiation doses and radiation hazard, nuclear reactions and nuclear reactor. *19. Particle physics:* fundamental particles, particle accelerators and detectors, four forces, leptons, hadrons, conservation laws, quarks, standard model and beyond, cosmology (Hubble law,expanding Universe).

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Category of Education Physical Science, Education
Sectors Education
Classification Higher education
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Poland al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków , 30-059, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

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